Source code for zope.testbrowser.browser

# Copyright (c) 2005 Zope Foundation and Contributors.
# All Rights Reserved.
# This software is subject to the provisions of the Zope Public License,
# Version 2.1 (ZPL).  A copy of the ZPL should accompany this distribution.
"""Webtest-based Functional Doctest interfaces

import re
import time
import io
from contextlib import contextmanager

from six.moves import urllib_robotparser
from six import string_types

from zope.interface import implementer
from import Lazy
from wsgiproxy.proxies import TransparentProxy
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup
from soupsieve import escape as css_escape

from zope.testbrowser import interfaces
from zope.testbrowser._compat import httpclient, PYTHON2
from zope.testbrowser._compat import urllib_request, urlparse
import zope.testbrowser.cookies

import webtest

__docformat__ = "reStructuredText"

HTTPError = urllib_request.HTTPError
RegexType = type(re.compile(''))
_compress_re = re.compile(r"\s+")

class HostNotAllowed(Exception):

class RobotExclusionError(HTTPError):
    def __init__(self, *args):
        super(RobotExclusionError, self).__init__(*args)

# RFC 2606
_allowed_2nd_level = set(['', '', ''])

_allowed = set(['localhost', ''])

REDIRECTS = (301, 302, 303, 307)

class TestbrowserApp(webtest.TestApp):
    _last_fragment = ""
    restricted = False

    def _assertAllowed(self, url):
        parsed = urlparse.urlparse(url)
        if self.restricted:
            # We are in restricted mode, check host part only
            host = parsed.netloc.partition(':')[0]
            if host in _allowed:
            for dom in _allowed_2nd_level:
                if host.endswith('.%s' % dom):

            raise HostNotAllowed(url)
            # Unrestricted mode: retrieve robots.txt and check against it
            robotsurl = urlparse.urlunsplit((parsed.scheme, parsed.netloc,
                                             '/robots.txt', '', ''))
            rp = urllib_robotparser.RobotFileParser()
            if not rp.can_fetch("*", url):
                msg = "request disallowed by robots.txt"
                raise RobotExclusionError(url, 403, msg, [], None)

    def do_request(self, req, status, expect_errors):

        response = super(TestbrowserApp, self).do_request(req, status,
        # Store _last_fragment in response to preserve fragment for history
        # (goBack() will not lose fragment).
        response._last_fragment = self._last_fragment
        return response

    def _remove_fragment(self, url):
        # HACK: we need to preserve fragment part of url, but webtest strips it
        # from url on every request. So we override this protected method,
        # assuming it is called on every request and therefore _last_fragment
        # will not get outdated. ``getRequestUrlWithFragment()`` will
        # reconstruct url with fragment for the last request.
        scheme, netloc, path, query, fragment = urlparse.urlsplit(url)
        self._last_fragment = fragment
        return super(TestbrowserApp, self)._remove_fragment(url)

    def getRequestUrlWithFragment(self, response):
        url = response.request.url
        if not self._last_fragment:
            return url
        return "%s#%s" % (url, response._last_fragment)

class SetattrErrorsMixin(object):
    _enable_setattr_errors = False

    def __setattr__(self, name, value):
        if self._enable_setattr_errors:
            # cause an attribute error if the attribute doesn't already exist
            getattr(self, name)

        # set the value
        object.__setattr__(self, name, value)

[docs]@implementer(interfaces.IBrowser) class Browser(SetattrErrorsMixin): """A web user agent.""" _contents = None _controls = None _counter = 0 _response = None _req_headers = None _req_content_type = None _req_referrer = None _history = None __html = None def __init__(self, url=None, wsgi_app=None): self.timer = Timer() self.raiseHttpErrors = True self.handleErrors = True self.followRedirects = True if wsgi_app is None: self.testapp = TestbrowserApp(TransparentProxy()) else: self.testapp = TestbrowserApp(wsgi_app) self.testapp.restricted = True self._req_headers = {} self._history = History() self._enable_setattr_errors = True self._controls = {} if url is not None: @property def url(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" if self._response is None: return None return self.testapp.getRequestUrlWithFragment(self._response) @property def isHtml(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" return self._response and 'html' in self._response.content_type @property def lastRequestSeconds(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" return self.timer.elapsedSeconds @property def title(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" if not self.isHtml: raise BrowserStateError('not viewing HTML') titles = self._html.find_all('title') if not titles: return None return self.toStr(titles[0].text)
[docs] def reload(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" if self._response is None: raise BrowserStateError("no URL has yet been .open()ed") def make_request(args): return self.testapp.request(self._response.request) # _req_referrer is left intact, so will be the referrer (if any) of # the request being reloaded. self._processRequest(self.url, make_request)
[docs] def goBack(self, count=1): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" resp = self._history.back(count, self._response) self._setResponse(resp)
@property def contents(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" if self._response is not None: return self.toStr(self._response.body) else: return None @property def headers(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" resptxt = [] resptxt.append('Status: %s' % self._response.status) for h, v in sorted(self._response.headers.items()): resptxt.append(str("%s: %s" % (h, v))) inp = '\n'.join(resptxt) stream = io.BytesIO(inp.encode('latin1')) if PYTHON2: return httpclient.HTTPMessage(stream) else: return httpclient.parse_headers(stream) @property def cookies(self): if self.url is None: raise RuntimeError("no request found") return zope.testbrowser.cookies.Cookies(self.testapp, self.url, self._req_headers)
[docs] def addHeader(self, key, value): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" if (self.url and key.lower() in ('cookie', 'cookie2') and self.cookies.header): raise ValueError('cookies are already set in `cookies` attribute') self._req_headers[key] = value
[docs] def open(self, url, data=None, referrer=None): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" url = self._absoluteUrl(url) if data is not None: def make_request(args): return, data, **args) else: def make_request(args): return self.testapp.get(url, **args) self._req_referrer = referrer self._processRequest(url, make_request)
def post(self, url, data, content_type=None, referrer=None): if content_type is not None: self._req_content_type = content_type self._req_referrer = referrer return, data) def _clickSubmit(self, form, control=None, coord=None): # find index of given control in the form url = self._absoluteUrl(form.action) if control: def make_request(args): index = form.fields[].index(control) return self._submit( form,, index, coord=coord, **args) else: def make_request(args): return self._submit(form, coord=coord, **args) self._req_referrer = self.url self._processRequest(url, make_request) def _processRequest(self, url, make_request): with self._preparedRequest(url) as reqargs: self._history.add(self._response) resp = make_request(reqargs) if self.followRedirects: remaining_redirects = 100 # infinite loops protection while resp.status_int in REDIRECTS and remaining_redirects: remaining_redirects -= 1 self._req_referrer = url url = urlparse.urljoin(url, resp.headers['location']) with self._preparedRequest(url) as reqargs: resp = self.testapp.get(url, **reqargs) assert remaining_redirects > 0, ( "redirects chain looks infinite") self._setResponse(resp) self._checkStatus() def _checkStatus(self): # if the headers don't have a status, I suppose there can't be an error if 'Status' in self.headers: code, msg = self.headers['Status'].split(' ', 1) code = int(code) if self.raiseHttpErrors and code >= 400: raise HTTPError(self.url, code, msg, [], None) def _submit(self, form, name=None, index=None, coord=None, **args): # A reimplementation of webtest.forms.Form.submit() to allow to insert # coords into the request fields = form.submit_fields(name, index=index) if coord is not None: fields.extend([('%s.x' % name, coord[0]), ('%s.y' % name, coord[1])]) url = self._absoluteUrl(form.action) if form.method.upper() != "GET": args.setdefault("content_type", form.enctype) else: parsed = urlparse.urlparse(url)._replace(query='', fragment='') url = urlparse.urlunparse(parsed) return form.response.goto(url, method=form.method, params=fields, **args) def _setResponse(self, response): self._response = response self._changed()
[docs] def follow(self, *args, **kw): """Select a link and follow it.""" self.getLink(*args, **kw).click()
def _getBaseUrl(self): # Look for <base href> tag and use it as base, if it exists url = self._response.request.url if b"<base" not in self._response.body: return url # we suspect there is a base tag in body, try to find href there html = self._html if not html.head: return url base = html.head.base if not base: return url return base['href'] or url
[docs] def getForm(self, id=None, name=None, action=None, index=None): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" zeroOrOne([id, name, action], '"id", "name", and "action"') matching_forms = [] allforms = self._getAllResponseForms() for form in allforms: if ((id is not None and == id) or (name is not None and form.html.form.get('name') == name) or (action is not None and, form.action)) or id == name == action is None): matching_forms.append(form) if index is None and not any([id, name, action]): if len(matching_forms) == 1: index = 0 else: raise ValueError( 'if no other arguments are given, index is required.') form = disambiguate(matching_forms, '', index) return Form(self, form)
[docs] def getControl(self, label=None, name=None, index=None): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" intermediate, msg, available = self._getAllControls( label, name, self._getAllResponseForms(), include_subcontrols=True) control = disambiguate(intermediate, msg, index, controlFormTupleRepr, available) return control
def _getAllResponseForms(self): """ Return set of response forms in the order they appear in ``self._response.form``.""" respforms = self._response.forms idxkeys = [k for k in respforms.keys() if isinstance(k, int)] return [respforms[k] for k in sorted(idxkeys)] def _getAllControls(self, label, name, forms, include_subcontrols=False): onlyOne([label, name], '"label" and "name"') # might be an iterator, and we need to iterate twice forms = list(forms) available = None if label is not None: res = self._findByLabel(label, forms, include_subcontrols) msg = 'label %r' % label elif name is not None: include_subcontrols = False res = self._findByName(name, forms) msg = 'name %r' % name if not res: available = list(self._findAllControls(forms, include_subcontrols)) return res, msg, available def _findByLabel(self, label, forms, include_subcontrols=False): # forms are iterable of mech_forms matches = re.compile(r'(^|\b|\W)%s(\b|\W|$)' % re.escape(normalizeWhitespace(label))).search found = [] for wtcontrol in self._findAllControls(forms, include_subcontrols): control = getattr(wtcontrol, 'control', wtcontrol) if control.type == 'hidden': continue for label in wtcontrol.labels: if matches(label): found.append(wtcontrol) break return found def _indexControls(self, form): # Unfortunately, webtest will remove all 'name' attributes from # form.html after parsing. But we need them (at least to locate labels # for radio buttons). So we are forced to reparse part of html, to # extract elements. html = BeautifulSoup(form.text, 'html.parser') tags = ('input', 'select', 'textarea', 'button') return html.find_all(tags) def _findByName(self, name, forms): return [c for c in self._findAllControls(forms) if == name] def _findAllControls(self, forms, include_subcontrols=False): res = [] for f in forms: if f not in self._controls: fc = [] allelems = self._indexControls(f) already_processed = set() for cname, wtcontrol in f.field_order: # we need to group checkboxes by name, but leave # the other controls in the original order, # even if the name repeats if isinstance(wtcontrol, webtest.forms.Checkbox): if cname in already_processed: continue already_processed.add(cname) wtcontrols = f.fields[cname] else: wtcontrols = [wtcontrol] for c in controlFactory(cname, wtcontrols, allelems, self): fc.append((c, False)) for subcontrol in c.controls: fc.append((subcontrol, True)) self._controls[f] = fc controls = [c for c, subcontrol in self._controls[f] if not subcontrol or include_subcontrols] res.extend(controls) return res def _changed(self): self._counter += 1 self._contents = None self._controls = {} self.__html = None @contextmanager def _preparedRequest(self, url): self.timer.start() headers = {} if self._req_referrer is not None: headers['Referer'] = self._req_referrer if self._req_content_type: headers['Content-Type'] = self._req_content_type headers['Connection'] = 'close' headers['Host'] = urlparse.urlparse(url).netloc headers['User-Agent'] = 'Python-urllib/2.4' headers.update(self._req_headers) extra_environ = {} if self.handleErrors: extra_environ['paste.throw_errors'] = None headers['X-zope-handle-errors'] = 'True' else: extra_environ['wsgi.handleErrors'] = False extra_environ['paste.throw_errors'] = True extra_environ['x-wsgiorg.throw_errors'] = True headers.pop('X-zope-handle-errors', None) kwargs = {'headers': sorted(headers.items()), 'extra_environ': extra_environ, 'expect_errors': True} yield kwargs self._req_content_type = None self.timer.stop() def _absoluteUrl(self, url): absolute = url.startswith('http://') or url.startswith('https://') if absolute: return str(url) if self._response is None: raise BrowserStateError( "can't fetch relative reference: not viewing any document") return str(urlparse.urljoin(self._getBaseUrl(), url))
[docs] def toStr(self, s): """Convert possibly unicode object to native string using response charset""" if not self._response.charset: return s if s is None: return None # Might be an iterable, especially the 'class' attribute. if isinstance(s, (list, tuple)): subs = [self.toStr(sub) for sub in s] if isinstance(s, tuple): return tuple(subs) return subs if PYTHON2 and not isinstance(s, bytes): return s.encode(self._response.charset) if not PYTHON2 and isinstance(s, bytes): return s.decode(self._response.charset) return s
@property def _html(self): if self.__html is None: self.__html = self._response.html return self.__html
def controlFactory(name, wtcontrols, elemindex, browser): assert len(wtcontrols) > 0 first_wtc = wtcontrols[0] checkbox = isinstance(first_wtc, webtest.forms.Checkbox) # Create control list if checkbox: ctrlelems = [(wtc, elemindex[wtc.pos]) for wtc in wtcontrols] controls = [CheckboxListControl(name, ctrlelems, browser)] else: controls = [] for wtc in wtcontrols: controls.append(simpleControlFactory( wtc, wtc.form, elemindex, browser)) return controls def simpleControlFactory(wtcontrol, form, elemindex, browser): if isinstance(wtcontrol, webtest.forms.Radio): elems = [e for e in elemindex if e.attrs.get('name') ==] return RadioListControl(wtcontrol, form, elems, browser) elem = elemindex[wtcontrol.pos] if isinstance(wtcontrol, (webtest.forms.Select, webtest.forms.MultipleSelect)): return ListControl(wtcontrol, form, elem, browser) elif isinstance(wtcontrol, webtest.forms.Submit): if wtcontrol.attrs.get('type', 'submit') == 'image': return ImageControl(wtcontrol, form, elem, browser) else: return SubmitControl(wtcontrol, form, elem, browser) else: return Control(wtcontrol, form, elem, browser) @implementer(interfaces.ILink) class Link(SetattrErrorsMixin): def __init__(self, link, browser, baseurl=""): self._link = link self.browser = browser self._baseurl = baseurl self._browser_counter = self.browser._counter self._enable_setattr_errors = True def click(self): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError, referrer=self.browser.url) @property def url(self): relurl = self._link['href'] return self.browser._absoluteUrl(relurl) @property def text(self): txt = normalizeWhitespace(self._link.text) return self.browser.toStr(txt) @property def tag(self): return str( @property def attrs(self): toStr = self.browser.toStr return dict((toStr(k), toStr(v)) for k, v in self._link.attrs.items()) def __repr__(self): return "<%s text='%s' url='%s'>" % ( self.__class__.__name__, normalizeWhitespace(self.text), self.url) def controlFormTupleRepr(wtcontrol): return wtcontrol.mechRepr() @implementer(interfaces.IControl) class Control(SetattrErrorsMixin): _enable_setattr_errors = False def __init__(self, control, form, elem, browser): self._control = control self._form = form self._elem = elem self.browser = browser self._browser_counter = self.browser._counter # disable addition of further attributes self._enable_setattr_errors = True @property def disabled(self): return 'disabled' in self._control.attrs @property def readonly(self): return 'readonly' in self._control.attrs @property def type(self): typeattr = self._control.attrs.get('type', None) if typeattr is None: # try to figure out type by tag if self._control.tag == 'textarea': return 'textarea' else: # By default, inputs are of 'text' type return 'text' return self.browser.toStr(typeattr) @property def name(self): if is None: return None return self.browser.toStr( @property def multiple(self): return 'multiple' in self._control.attrs @property def value(self): if self.type == 'file': if not self._control.value: return None if self.type == 'image': if not self._control.value: return '' if isinstance(self._control, webtest.forms.Submit): return self.browser.toStr(self._control.value_if_submitted()) val = self._control.value if val is None: return None return self.browser.toStr(val) @value.setter def value(self, value): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError if self.readonly: raise AttributeError("Trying to set value of readonly control") if self.type == 'file': self.add_file(value, content_type=None, filename=None) else: self._control.value = value def add_file(self, file, content_type, filename): if self.type != 'file': raise TypeError("Can't call add_file on %s controls" % self.type) if hasattr(file, 'read'): contents = else: contents = file self._form[] = webtest.forms.Upload(filename or '', contents, content_type) def clear(self): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise zope.testbrowser.interfaces.ExpiredError self.value = None def __repr__(self): return "<%s name='%s' type='%s'>" % ( self.__class__.__name__,, self.type) @Lazy def labels(self): return [self.browser.toStr(label) for label in getControlLabels(self._elem, self._form.html)] @property def controls(self): return [] def mechRepr(self): # emulate mechanize control representation toStr = self.browser.toStr ctrl = self._control if isinstance(ctrl, (webtest.forms.Text, webtest.forms.Email)): tp = ctrl.attrs.get('type') infos = [] if 'readonly' in ctrl.attrs or tp == 'hidden': infos.append('readonly') if 'disabled' in ctrl.attrs: infos.append('disabled') classnames = {'password': "PasswordControl", 'hidden': "HiddenControl", 'email': "EMailControl", } clname = classnames.get(tp, "TextControl") return "<%s(%s=%s)%s>" % ( clname, toStr(, toStr(ctrl.value), ' (%s)' % (', '.join(infos)) if infos else '') if isinstance(ctrl, webtest.forms.File): return repr(ctrl) + "<-- unknown" raise NotImplementedError(str((self, ctrl))) @implementer(interfaces.ISubmitControl) class SubmitControl(Control): def click(self): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError self.browser._clickSubmit(self._form, self._control) @Lazy def labels(self): labels = super(SubmitControl, self).labels labels.append(self._control.value_if_submitted()) if self._elem.text: labels.append(normalizeWhitespace(self._elem.text)) return [label for label in labels if label] def mechRepr(self): name = if is not None else "<None>" value = self.value if self.value is not None else "<None>" extra = ' (disabled)' if self.disabled else '' # Mechanize explicitly told us submit controls were readonly, as # if they could be any other way.... *sigh* Let's take this # opportunity and strip that off. return "<SubmitControl(%s=%s)%s>" % (name, value, extra) @implementer(interfaces.IListControl) class ListControl(Control): def __init__(self, control, form, elem, browser): super(ListControl, self).__init__(control, form, elem, browser) # HACK: set default value of a list control and then forget about # initial default values. Otherwise webtest will not allow to set None # as a value of select and radio controls. v = control.value if v: control.value = v # Uncheck all the options Carefully: WebTest used to have # 2-tuples here before commit 1031d82e, and 3-tuples since then. control.options = [option[:1] + (False,) + option[2:] for option in control.options] @property def type(self): return 'select' @property def value(self): val = self._control.value if val is None: return [] if self.multiple and isinstance(val, (list, tuple)): return [self.browser.toStr(v) for v in val] else: return [self.browser.toStr(val)] @value.setter def value(self, value): if not value: self._set_falsy_value(value) else: if not self.multiple and isinstance(value, (list, tuple)): value = value[0] self._control.value = value @property def _selectedIndex(self): return self._control.selectedIndex @_selectedIndex.setter def _selectedIndex(self, index): self._control.force_value(webtest.forms.NoValue) self._control.selectedIndex = index def _set_falsy_value(self, value): self._control.force_value(value) @property def displayValue(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IListControl""" # not implemented for anything other than select; cvalue = self._control.value if cvalue is None: return [] if not isinstance(cvalue, list): cvalue = [cvalue] alltitles = [] for key, titles in self._getOptions(): if key in cvalue: alltitles.append(titles[0]) return alltitles @displayValue.setter def displayValue(self, value): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError if isinstance(value, string_types): value = [value] if not self.multiple and len(value) > 1: raise ItemCountError( "single selection list, must set sequence of length 0 or 1") values = [] found = set() for key, titles in self._getOptions(): matches = set(v for t in titles for v in value if v in t) if matches: values.append(key) found.update(matches) for v in value: if v not in found: raise ItemNotFoundError(v) self.value = values @property def displayOptions(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IListControl""" return [titles[0] for key, titles in self._getOptions()] @property def options(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IListControl""" return [key for key, title in self._getOptions()] def getControl(self, label=None, value=None, index=None): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError return getControl(self.controls, label, value, index) @property def controls(self): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError ctrls = [] for idx, elem in enumerate('option')): ctrls.append(ItemControl(self, elem, self._form, self.browser, idx)) return ctrls def _getOptions(self): return [(c.optionValue, c.labels) for c in self.controls] def mechRepr(self): # TODO: figure out what is replacement for "[*, ambiguous])" return "<SelectControl(%s=[*, ambiguous])>" % class RadioListControl(ListControl): _elems = None def __init__(self, control, form, elems, browser): super(RadioListControl, self).__init__( control, form, elems[0], browser) self._elems = elems @property def type(self): return 'radio' def __repr__(self): # Return backwards compatible representation return "<ListControl name='%s' type='radio'>" % @property def controls(self): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError for idx, opt in enumerate(self._elems): yield RadioItemControl(self, opt, self._form, self.browser, idx) @Lazy def labels(self): # Parent radio button control has no labels. Children are labeled. return [] def _set_falsy_value(self, value): # HACK: Force unsetting selected value, by avoiding validity check. # Note, that force_value will not work for webtest.forms.Radio # controls. self._control.selectedIndex = None @implementer(interfaces.IListControl) class CheckboxListControl(SetattrErrorsMixin): def __init__(self, name, ctrlelems, browser): = name self.browser = browser self._browser_counter = self.browser._counter self._ctrlelems = ctrlelems self._enable_setattr_errors = True @property def options(self): opts = [self._trValue(c.optionValue) for c in self.controls] return opts @property def displayOptions(self): return [c.labels[0] for c in self.controls] @property def value(self): ctrls = self.controls val = [self._trValue(c.optionValue) for c in ctrls if c.selected] if len(self._ctrlelems) == 1 and val == [True]: return True return val @value.setter def value(self, value): ctrls = self.controls if isinstance(value, (list, tuple)): for c in ctrls: c.selected = c.optionValue in value else: ctrls[0].selected = value @property def displayValue(self): return [c.labels[0] for c in self.controls if c.selected] @displayValue.setter def displayValue(self, value): found = set() for c in self.controls: matches = set(v for v in value if v in c.labels) c.selected = bool(matches) found.update(matches) for v in value: if v not in found: raise ItemNotFoundError(v) @property def multiple(self): return True @property def disabled(self): return all('disabled' in e.attrs for c, e in self._ctrlelems) @property def type(self): return 'checkbox' def getControl(self, label=None, value=None, index=None): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError return getControl(self.controls, label, value, index) @property def controls(self): return [CheckboxItemControl(self, c, e, c.form, self.browser, i) for i, (c, e) in enumerate(self._ctrlelems)] def clear(self): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise zope.testbrowser.interfaces.ExpiredError self.value = [] def mechRepr(self): return "<SelectControl(%s=[*, ambiguous])>" % self.browser.toStr( @Lazy def labels(self): return [] def __repr__(self): # Return backwards compatible representation return "<ListControl name='%s' type='checkbox'>" % def _trValue(self, chbval): return True if chbval == 'on' else chbval @implementer(interfaces.IImageSubmitControl) class ImageControl(Control): def click(self, coord=(1, 1)): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError self.browser._clickSubmit(self._form, self._control, coord) def mechRepr(self): return "ImageControl???" # TODO @implementer(interfaces.IItemControl) class ItemControl(SetattrErrorsMixin): def __init__(self, parent, elem, form, browser, index): self._parent = parent self._elem = elem self._index = index self._form = form self.browser = browser self._browser_counter = self.browser._counter self._enable_setattr_errors = True @property def control(self): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError return self._parent @property def _value(self): return self._elem.attrs.get('value', self._elem.text) @property def disabled(self): return 'disabled' in self._elem.attrs @property def selected(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IControl""" if self._parent.multiple: return self._value in self._parent.value else: return self._parent._selectedIndex == self._index @selected.setter def selected(self, value): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError if self._parent.multiple: values = list(self._parent.value) if value: values.append(self._value) else: values = [v for v in values if v != self._value] self._parent.value = values else: if value: self._parent._selectedIndex = self._index else: self._parent.value = None @property def optionValue(self): return self.browser.toStr(self._value) @property def value(self): # internal alias for convenience implementing getControl() return self.optionValue def click(self): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError self.selected = not self.selected def __repr__(self): return ( "<ItemControl name='%s' type='select' optionValue=%r selected=%r>" ) % (, self.optionValue, self.selected) @Lazy def labels(self): labels = [self._elem.attrs.get('label'), self._elem.text] return [self.browser.toStr(normalizeWhitespace(lbl)) for lbl in labels if lbl] def mechRepr(self): toStr = self.browser.toStr contents = toStr(normalizeWhitespace(self._elem.text)) id = toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('id')) label = toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('label', contents)) value = toStr(self._value) name = toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('name', value)) # XXX wha???? return ( "<Item name='%s' id=%s contents='%s' value='%s' label='%s'>" ) % (name, id, contents, value, label) class RadioItemControl(ItemControl): @property def optionValue(self): return self.browser.toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('value')) @Lazy def labels(self): return [self.browser.toStr(label) for label in getControlLabels(self._elem, self._form.html)] def __repr__(self): return ( "<ItemControl name='%s' type='radio' optionValue=%r selected=%r>" ) % (, self.optionValue, self.selected) def click(self): # Radio buttons cannot be unselected by clicking on them, see # if not self.selected: super(RadioItemControl, self).click() def mechRepr(self): toStr = self.browser.toStr id = toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('id')) value = toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('value')) name = toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('name')) props = [] if == 'label': props.append(( '__label', {'__text': toStr(self._elem.parent.text)})) if self.selected: props.append(('checked', 'checked')) props.append(('type', 'radio')) props.append(('name', name)) props.append(('value', value)) props.append(('id', id)) propstr = ' '.join('%s=%r' % (pk, pv) for pk, pv in props) return "<Item name='%s' id='%s' %s>" % (value, id, propstr) class CheckboxItemControl(ItemControl): _control = None def __init__(self, parent, wtcontrol, elem, form, browser, index): super(CheckboxItemControl, self).__init__(parent, elem, form, browser, index) self._control = wtcontrol @property def selected(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IControl""" return self._control.checked @selected.setter def selected(self, value): if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError self._control.checked = value @property def optionValue(self): return self.browser.toStr(self._control._value or 'on') @Lazy def labels(self): return [self.browser.toStr(label) for label in getControlLabels(self._elem, self._form.html)] def __repr__(self): return ( "<ItemControl name='%s' type='checkbox' " "optionValue=%r selected=%r>" ) % (, self.optionValue, self.selected) def mechRepr(self): id = self.browser.toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('id')) value = self.browser.toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('value')) name = self.browser.toStr(self._elem.attrs.get('name')) props = [] if == 'label': props.append(('__label', {'__text': self.browser.toStr( self._elem.parent.text)})) if self.selected: props.append(('checked', 'checked')) props.append(('name', name)) props.append(('type', 'checkbox')) props.append(('id', id)) props.append(('value', value)) propstr = ' '.join('%s=%r' % (pk, pv) for pk, pv in props) return "<Item name='%s' id='%s' %s>" % (value, id, propstr) @implementer(interfaces.IForm) class Form(SetattrErrorsMixin): """HTML Form""" def __init__(self, browser, form): """Initialize the Form browser - a Browser instance form - a webtest.Form instance """ self.browser = browser self._form = form self._browser_counter = self.browser._counter self._enable_setattr_errors = True @property def action(self): return self.browser._absoluteUrl(self._form.action) @property def method(self): return str(self._form.method) @property def enctype(self): return str(self._form.enctype) @property def name(self): return str(self._form.html.form.get('name')) @property def id(self): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IForm""" return str( def submit(self, label=None, name=None, index=None, coord=None): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IForm""" if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError form = self._form if label is not None or name is not None: controls, msg, available = self.browser._getAllControls( label, name, [form]) controls = [c for c in controls if isinstance(c, (ImageControl, SubmitControl))] control = disambiguate( controls, msg, index, controlFormTupleRepr, available) self.browser._clickSubmit(form, control._control, coord) else: # JavaScript sort of submit if index is not None or coord is not None: raise ValueError( 'May not use index or coord without a control') self.browser._clickSubmit(form) def getControl(self, label=None, name=None, index=None): """See zope.testbrowser.interfaces.IBrowser""" if self._browser_counter != self.browser._counter: raise interfaces.ExpiredError intermediate, msg, available = self.browser._getAllControls( label, name, [self._form], include_subcontrols=True) return disambiguate(intermediate, msg, index, controlFormTupleRepr, available) @property def controls(self): return list(self.browser._findAllControls( [self._form], include_subcontrols=True)) def disambiguate(intermediate, msg, index, choice_repr=None, available=None): if intermediate: if index is None: if len(intermediate) > 1: if choice_repr: msg += ' matches:' + ''.join([ '\n %s' % choice_repr(choice) for choice in intermediate]) raise AmbiguityError(msg) else: return intermediate[0] else: try: return intermediate[index] except IndexError: msg = ( '%s\nIndex %d out of range, available choices are 0...%d' ) % (msg, index, len(intermediate) - 1) if choice_repr: msg += ''.join(['\n %d: %s' % (n, choice_repr(choice)) for n, choice in enumerate(intermediate)]) else: if available: msg += '\navailable items:' + ''.join([ '\n %s' % choice_repr(choice) for choice in available]) elif available is not None: # empty list msg += '\n(there are no form items in the HTML)' raise LookupError(msg) def onlyOne(items, description): total = sum([bool(i) for i in items]) if total == 0 or total > 1: raise ValueError( "Supply one and only one of %s as arguments" % description) def zeroOrOne(items, description): if sum([bool(i) for i in items]) > 1: raise ValueError( "Supply no more than one of %s as arguments" % description) def getControl(controls, label=None, value=None, index=None): onlyOne([label, value], '"label" and "value"') if label is not None: options = [c for c in controls if any(isMatching(control_label, label) for control_label in c.labels)] msg = 'label %r' % label elif value is not None: options = [c for c in controls if isMatching(c.value, value)] msg = 'value %r' % value res = disambiguate(options, msg, index, controlFormTupleRepr, available=controls) return res def getControlLabels(celem, html): labels = [] # In case celem is contained in label element, use its text as a label if == 'label': labels.append(normalizeWhitespace(celem.parent.text)) # find all labels, connected by 'for' attribute controlid = celem.attrs.get('id') if controlid: forlbls ='label[for="%s"]' % controlid) labels.extend([normalizeWhitespace(label.text) for label in forlbls]) return [label for label in labels if label is not None] def normalizeWhitespace(string): return ' '.join(string.split()) def isMatching(string, expr): """Determine whether ``expr`` matches to ``string`` ``expr`` can be None, plain text or regular expression. * If ``expr`` is ``None``, ``string`` is considered matching * If ``expr`` is plain text, its equality to ``string`` will be checked * If ``expr`` is regexp, regexp matching agains ``string`` will be performed """ if expr is None: return True if isinstance(expr, RegexType): return expr.match(normalizeWhitespace(string)) else: return normalizeWhitespace(expr) in normalizeWhitespace(string) class Timer(object): start_time = 0 end_time = 0 def _getTime(self): if hasattr(time, 'perf_counter'): # Python 3 return time.perf_counter() else: # Python 2 return time.time() def start(self): """Begin a timing period""" self.start_time = self._getTime() self.end_time = None def stop(self): """End a timing period""" self.end_time = self._getTime() @property def elapsedSeconds(self): """Elapsed time from calling `start` to calling `stop` or present time If `stop` has been called, the timing period stopped then, otherwise the end is the current time. """ if self.end_time is None: end_time = self._getTime() else: end_time = self.end_time return end_time - self.start_time def __enter__(self): self.start() def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback): self.stop() class History: """ Though this will become public, the implied interface is not yet stable. """ def __init__(self): self._history = [] # LIFO def add(self, response): self._history.append(response) def back(self, n, _response): response = _response while n > 0 or response is None: try: response = self._history.pop() except IndexError: raise BrowserStateError("already at start of history") n -= 1 return response def clear(self): del self._history[:] class AmbiguityError(ValueError): pass class BrowserStateError(Exception): pass class LinkNotFoundError(IndexError): pass class ItemCountError(ValueError): pass class ItemNotFoundError(ValueError): pass